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A combination of additives can synergically decrease acrylamide content in gingerbread without compromising sensory quality. The present study tested whether replacement of the leavening agent ammonium carbonate by sodium hydrogen carbonate in combination with calcium cation and acidifying agent will synergically decrease acrylamide AA content in gingerbread. Inventor ; Pratt, J. Richard Inventor ; St.

Inventor ; Stoakley, Diane M. Inventor ; Burks, Harold D. A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly- amic acid or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processabilityas evidenced by lower melt viscosity by jaskkulski rheometry.

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Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Additive naftopidil treatment synergizes docetaxel-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. To overcome this problem, researchers have evaluated the efficacy of DTX treatment in combination with other drugs. Naftopidil is a tubulin-binding drug with fewer adverse events, implying the usefulness of this drug in clinical applications when combined with DTX.

Here, we investigated the efficacy of additive naftopidil treatment in combination with DTX on prostate cancer PCa cells. The synergistic effects of naftopidil on DTX-induced apoptosis were also observed in PC-3 xenografts. Thus, additive naftopidil treatment showed a synergistic effect on DTX-induced apoptosis in PCa cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this treatment approach may yield improved clinical benefits compared with DTX alone.

Combinatory therapies have been commonly applied in the clinical setting to tackle multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and these have frequently proven to be effective. Specifically, combinatory therapies resulting in synergistic interactions between antibiotics and adjuvant have been the main focus due to their effectiveness, sidelining the effects of additivitywhich also lowers the minimal effective dosage of either antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was undertaken to look at the effects of additivity between essential oils and antibiotic, via the use of cinnamon bark essential oil CBO and meropenem as a model for additivity.

Comparisons between synergistic and additive interaction of CBO were performed in terms of the ability of CBO to disrupt bacterial membrane, via zeta potential measurement, outer membrane permeability assay and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the additivity interaction between CBO and meropenem showed similar membrane disruption ability when compared to those synergistic combinations which was previously reported.

Hence, results based on our studies strongly suggest that additive interaction acts on a par with synergistic interaction. Therefore, further investigation in additive interaction between antibiotics and adjuvant should be performed for a more in depth understanding of the mechanism and the impacts of such interaction. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat. Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer.

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Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction.

Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, for observational studies on lung cancer. The additive interaction index of synergy was 1. Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1. Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and jaskulsi airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits.


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There is a synergic effect between the effects of constant low-speed rotation and rotating speed of the background. Under certain conditions, they both served to facilitate the visual cognitive processingand it had been started at the stage when extrastriate cortex perceiving the visual signal.

Under the condition of constant low-speed rotation in higher cognitive load tasks, the rapid rotation of the background enhanced the magnitude of the jaksulski transmission in the visual path, making signal to noise ratio increased and a higher signal to noise ratio is clearly in favor of target perception and recognition.

This gave rise to the hypothesis that higher cognitive load tasks with higher top-down control had more power in counteracting the inhibition effect of higher andrzzej rotation background. Recombinant expression of thermostable processive MtEG5 endoglucanase and its synergism with MtLPMO from Myceliophthora thermophila during the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates.

Filamentous fungi are among the most powerful cellulolytic organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. To perform the degradation of lignocellulosic substrates, these andrzei employ both hydrolytic and oxidative mechanisms that involve the secretion and synergism of a wide variety of enzymes.

Interactions between these enzymes occur on the level of saccharification, i. Although the synergism regarding the yield of neutral sugars has been jasulski studied, further studies should focus on the oxidized sugars, as well as the effect of enzyme combinations on the viscosity properties of the substrates. In the present study, the heterologous expression of an endoglucanase EG and its combined activity together with a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase LPMOboth from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophilaare described.

The EG gene, belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 5, was functionally expressed in the jaskuslki yeast Pichia pastoris. The enzyme was capable of releasing high amounts of cellobiose from wheat straw, birch, and spruce biomass. Assessment of activity of Mt EG5A on the reduction of viscosity of PASC and pretreated wheat straw using dynamic viscosity measurements revealed that the enzyme is able to perform liquefaction of the model substrate and jaskklski natural lignocellulosic material, while when added together with Mt LPMO9, andgzej further synergistic effect was observed.

The endoglucanase Mt EG5A from the. PMV infection by itself modulated expression of putative genes functioning in carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, metabolite transport, protein modification, cell wall remodeling, jawkulski cell death.

Several salicylic acid signaling components, such as pathogenesis-related genes and WRKY transcription factors, were up-regulated. By contrast, several genes in jasmonic acid and ethylene responses were down-regulated. Strikingly, numerous protein kinases, including several classes of receptor-like kinases, were misexpressed.

Taken together, our results identified distinctly altered immune responses in jskulski antiviral defenses and provide insights into monocot viral synergism. Analysis of additivity and synergism in the anti-plasmodial effect of purified compounds from plant extracts.

In the search for antimalarials from ethnobotanical origin, plant extracts are chemically fractionated and biological tests guide the isolation of pure active compounds. To establish the responsibility of isolated active compound s to the whole antiplasmodial activity of a crude extract, the literature in this field was scanned and results were analysed quantitatively to find the contribution of the pure compound to the activity of the whole extract.

It was found that, generally, the activity of isolated molecules could not account on their own for the activity of the crude extract. It is suggested that future research should take into account the “drugs beside the drug”, looking for those products otherwise discarded along the fractionation process able to boost the activity of isolated active compounds. Combined treatment technology based on synergism between hydrodynamic cavitation and advanced oxidation processes.

The present work highlights the novel approach of combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment. The initial part of the work concentrates on the critical analysis of the literature related to the combined approaches based on hydrodynamic cavitation followed by a case study of triazophos degradation using different approaches. The analysis of different combinations based on hydrodynamic cavitation with the Fenton chemistry, advanced Fenton chemistry, ozonation, photocatalytic oxidation, and use of hydrogen peroxide has been highlighted with recommendations for important design parameters.


Subsequently degradation of triazophos pesticide in aqueous solution 20 ppm solution of commercially available triazophos pesticide has been investigated using hydrodynamic cavitation and ozonation operated individually and in combination for the first time.

Effect of different operating parameters like inlet pressure bar and initial pH 2. The effect of addition of Fenton’s reagent at different loadings on the extent of degradation has also been investigated.

The combined method of hydrodynamic cavitation and ozone has been studied using two approaches of injecting ozone in the solution tank and at the orifice at the flow rate of 0. Energetic additive manufacturing process with feed wire. A process for additive manufacture by energetic wire deposition is described. A source wire is fed into a energy beam generated melt-pool on a growth surface as the melt-pool moves over the growth surface.

This process enables the rapid prototyping and manufacture of fully dense, near-net shape components, as well as cladding and welding processes. Alloys, graded materials, and other inhomogeneous materials can be grown using jzskulski process. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

Increase understanding of build properties.

Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters.

Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power.

Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.

The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a jaskuleki shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing.

To use invenror process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a ajdrzej of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically.

This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Reconceptualizing synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors. The potential for complex synergistic or antagonistic interactions between multiple stressors presents one of the largest uncertainties when predicting ecological change but, despite common use of the terms in the scientific literature, a consensus on their operational definition is still lacking.

The identification of synergism or antagonism is generally straightforward when stressors operate in the same direction, but if individual stressor effects oppose each other, the definition of synergism is paradoxical jaskulsmi what is synergistic to one stressor’s effect inentor is andrezj to the others.

In their highly cited meta-analysis, Crain et al. Ecology Letters, 11, We argue against this and propose a new systematic classification based on an additive effects model that combines the magnitude and response direction of the cumulative effect and the interaction effect.

A new class of “mitigating synergism ” is identified, where cumulative effects are reversed and enhanced.