Abstract. Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the least studied of the pestiferous Neotropical tephritid flies despite its propensity. Semiochemicals of Anastrepha serpentina, the Sapote fruit fly Subfamily: Trypetinae. Genus: Anastrepha. Tribe: Toxotrypanini. Author: Wiedemann. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares .

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It is a widespread species in the American tropics, occurring from Mexico to Argentina. It has been anastrdpha and trapped in the USA Florida, California and other countries outside its range indicating its potential for spread via infested fruits.

This species was first described as Dacus serpentinus by Wiedemann It has been classified in several different genera. The current combination was proposed by Schiner in anastreppha For a general description of the genus, see the datasheet on Anastrepha. As in most other Anastrepha spp. The following description is taken from Norrbom The body is largely dark-orange to dark-brown with yellow markings and the setae are dark-brown. Orbital plate often with paired triangular brown area; frons rarely red or red-brown between these areas forming a single large mark.

Frons occasionally orange to pale red-brown anteromedially. Occiput usually with paired, triangular or comma-shaped, brown mark near or covering suture of median occipital sclerite. Facial carina, in profile, concave. Ocellar seta weak, small to minute.

Mesonotal darker areas mostly red-brown to dark-brown, often with narrow orange area bordering medial vitta, and less commonly with small sublateral presutural orange area; without orange vitta on dorsocentral line.

Most of darker areas of anepisternum, anepimeron, meron, and katatergite dark brown. Katepisternum usually srpentina anteriorly and ventrally, brown posteriorly.

Subscutellum and mediotergite red-brown to dark-brown, sometimes narrowly orange medially. Katepisternal seta weak, at most as long as postocellar seta, yellowish. Vein M strongly curved apically; section between bm-cu and r-m 1. Crossvein dm-cu distinctly oblique, with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Lateral surstylus moderately long; in lateral view slightly curved; in posterior view usually with small basolateral lobe, main part triangular, acute apically. Proctiger with lateral fold separating sclerotized areas. Eversible membrane with large, hook-like dorsobasal scales in triangular pattern.

The key by Steck et al. White and Elson-Harris described the third-instar larvae as follows:. Oral ridges of rows of small ridges with irregular serrations along posterior margins; accessory plates large, aanastrepha ones with small serrations along margins; mouthhooks moderately sclerotised, each with a large curved apical tooth.

sapote fruit fly – Anastrepha serpentina

Thoracic and abdominal segments: Dorsal spinules absent from A1-A8. A8 with area around spiracles protuberant, with obvious intermediate areas. Dorsal and intermediate tubercles and sensilla very obvious, ventral sensilla smaller. It occurs at low to middle elevations throughout mainland tropical America, from Mexico to northern Argentina. The status of A.

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The distribution map includes records based on specimens of A. The distribution in this summary table is based on anastrepba the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

In international trade, the major anadtrepha of dispersal to previously uninfested areas is via the transport of fruit containing live larvae. There is also a risk from the transport of puparia in soil or packaging with plants that have already fruited. A major risk also arises from the probable imposition of much stricter phytosanitary restrictions on exported fruits particularly to America and Japan if any Anastrepha sp.

The preferred hosts of Serpeentina. Native and introduced plants in a variety of other families, including various cultivated fruits, are occasionally attacked. Mango [ Mangifera indica ], several species of Citrusapple [ Malus domestica ], peach [ Prunus persica ] and quince [ Cydonia oblonga ] have been recorded as hosts.

The reported field hosts include 45 species belonging to 28 genera and 17 families, although some plants that have been recorded only once may be rare or incidental hosts Norrbom, Of the 18 genera and 29 species that are native hosts, five genera including ChrysophyllumManilkaraMicropholisPouteriaand Sideroxylon and 15 species belong to the Sapotaceae.

See Norrbom for additional host data. The eggs, anastrephs in many Anastrepha species, are laid below the skin anastrephw the host fruit and probably adjacent to the nut, seeds or stone because this species has a long ovipositor.

Anastrrepha larvae hatch after approximately 3 days and feed for serpetina days.

sapote fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina Diptera: Tephritidae

Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant and the adults emerge after days. The fecundity is approximately eggs per female Celedonio-Hurtado et al. There is evidence that the adults of Anastrepha spp. Within the serpentina group, a similar abdominal pattern occurs only in Anastrepha pulchraand elsewhere in Anastrephaonly in Anastrepha shannoni of the grandis group and some species of the daciformis group, particularly Anastrepha macrura and Anastrepha zucchiiwhich have much different wing patterns e.

Other useful diagnostic characters include: The larvae of Anastrepha are extremely difficult to identify and specialist help should be sought to confirm critical identifications. Consignments of suitable hosts from countries where the pest occurs should be inspected for symptoms of infestation and those suspected, cut open in order to look for the larvae.

The fruits should be exported only from areas where A. For Anastrepha ludensfor example, the fruits may also be treated in transit by cold anastrepah e.

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Ethylene dibromide was previously widely used as a fumigant, but is now generally withdrawn because of its carcinogenicity. Little post-harvest information is available specifically for A. Plants of host species transported with roots from countries where the pest occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia and should not carry fruits. Such plants may be prohibited for importation.

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Ssrpentina can be considerably aided by good cultural practices, for example, by gathering all fallen and infected host fruits and destroying them.

Insecticidal protection is possible by using a cover spray or a bait spray. Malathion is the usual choice of insecticide for fruit fly control and this is usually combined with protein hydrolysate to form a bait spray Roessler, ; practical details were given by Bateman Bait sprays work on the principle that both male and female tephritids are strongly attracted to a protein source from which ammonia emanates.

Bait sprays have the advantage over anaatrepha sprays that they can be applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is minimal impact on natural enemies.

Biological control methods involving parasitoids or sterile insect release have not been tried against A. However, work preparatory to sterile insect release has been carried out Liedo and Carey, ; Jacome et al.

Fruit infesting tephritids Dipt.: Tephritidae and associated anaztrepha in Chiapas, Mexico. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Studies on the fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean islands, No. The fruitfly Anastrepha serpentina in Curacao. Suriname, The Hague, 8: Las moscas de frutas del genero Anastrepha Schiner, Diptera: Pest fruit flies of the world.

Identification, descriptions, illustrations, and information retrieval. Species, distribution and hosts of the genus Anastrepha Schiner in the Department of Tolima, Colombia.

Adult population fluctuations of Anastrepha species Diptera: Tephritidae in tropical orchard habitats of Chiapas, Mexico. Environmental Entomology, 24 4: Serpehtina de Agricultura Piracicaba84 3: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Ecology; movements of tephritid fruit flies. Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. World Crop Pests, 3 B. Handbook of the Fruit Flies Diptera: Tephritidae of America North of Mexico. Hedstrom I, Jimenez J, Field evaluation of attractants in the capture of Anastrepha spp. Diptera, Tephritidaepests of fruit trees in tropical America.

Ammonium acetate and torula with sodium borate. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 32 2: Field evaluation of attractants in the trapping of Anastrepha spp. Molasses and torula yeast.

Development and sexual maturation in Anastrepha serpentina Wiedemann Diptera: Acta Zoologica Mexicana, No. The influence of adult diet and age on lipid reserves in the tropical fruit fly Anastrepha serpentina Diptera: