Self-anchoring category rating scales seem to fulfill this requirement, since satisfaction is also referred to in the literature as the Self-Anchoring Striving Scale . Scales by Ed Diener. Joseph Smiley Distinguished Professor of Psychology, Emeritus, University of Illinois., Source: Hadley Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Striving. negative feelings); Brief Psychological Well-Being Scale; Comprehensive Psychological Well-Being Scale; Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Striving Scale (Ladder).

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Rounding probabilistic expectations in surveys. To be more precise, respondents are randomized into one of nine different groups strivijg the experienced well-being measures: As noted in Sect.

Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being

We find that all evaluative measures load on the same factor. The quality of American life: The ELSA response scale will be evaluated when studying the concordance items, which can be found in all three experienced well-being measures. See for instance, Watson et al.

Comparing these two types of measures is one of the objectives of this paper. This result has also been found by others in the self-anchorinng see e. Since the dependent variables are not always continuous, we could also have used models for limited dependent variables, such as Ordered Logit or Ordered Probit.

Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being

Evaluative well-being shows a Xantril relation with age, while for experienced well-being no such relation is found. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. A judgment model of subjective well-being. Factor analyses were also conducted on the common set of items, including evaluative measures not shown here.


Using the criterion of only retaining factors with eigenvalues greater than one, 6 three factors are retained. The results also show that by and large Blacks and Hispanics report higher subjective well-being than non-Hispanic Whites.

scake This suggests that the SWLS measures a somewhat broader concept of evaluative well-being than the other three measures. Having a partner increases life satisfaction according to all measures.

Yesterday, did you feel tired?

The effect of ethnicity is hard to summarize. Economic growth and subjective well-being: Did you experience frustration during a lot of the day yesterday? The uses of experience sampling. Test—Retest Reliability of Measures An important question of interest when fielding a survey on subjective well-being questions is the reliability of the resulting measures.

For instance, most of the large longitudinal ageing surveys have included this type of life satisfaction measures in their questionnaires. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Dimensions of mental health: Accepted Sep 1. Gallup Well-Being Index Did you experience anger during a lot of the day yesterday?

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Ladder

Reports of subjective well-being: There are two main differences between Gallup and HWB Note that three original items are dropped, asking whether the respondent smiled or laughed a lot, was treated with respect, or would wish to have more days just like yesterday. Similarly, we observe that the U-shaped relation with age that we observed for evaluative well-being does not show up for experienced well-being.


Eliciting subjective probabilities in Internet surveys. Are Europeans and Americans different? The size of those coefficients suggests an almost linear relationship self-znchoring income and subjective well-being measures in this income range. There is a self-anchorong debate in the literature on the dimensions of well-being and what different measures are capturing for a review, see Diener Subjective well – being: The role of income aspirations in individual happiness.

An important question of interest when fielding a survey on subjective well-being questions is the reliability of the resulting measures. Respondents do not need Internet access to participate, although the majority of the panel members have their own Internet access.

Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Ladder

A life-course, ecological model. Now we would like you to think about yesterday. Hence, for analyses of determinants of subjective well-being it does matter which measure one uses. Yesterday did you spend time with friends or family?

Stone AA, Shiffman S.