Objective: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published demiological studies of developmental fluo-. ride neurotoxicity. Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: Choi et al. Respond . fluoride neurotoxicity: a systematic review and meta-. analysis. Environ Health. “Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis” is a study published in Environmental Health.

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Neither can it be used to demonstrate the harmful effects or complete safety, to be fair of municipal fluoridation as the study is better used to examine the effects of fluoride poisoning. The estimate of the between-study variation is incorporated into both neurotoxicuty SE of the estimate of the common meta-analywis and the weight of individual studies, which was calculated as the inverse sum of the within and between study variance.

This is a critical abstract of a systematic review that meets the criteria for inclusion on DARE. In general, complete information was not available on these 27 studies, and some limitations were identified. Our comprehensive review substantially extends the scope of research available for evaluation and analysis. Int J Pediatr Dent. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Children ranged in age from four to 16 sysrematic.

Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. The authors did not state how many reviewers performed the data extraction.

The authors of the original meta-analysis published an updated statement on the study in September of that year, [5] underscoring this:. Sywtematic standardized weighted mean difference in IQ score between exposed and reference populations was —0.

Among the 27 studies, all but one study showed random-effect SMD estimates that indicated an inverse association, ranging from —0.

We noted and recorded the information on age and sex of children, and parental education and income if available. Effective use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries in the 21st century: The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.


Occupational fluorosis through 50 years: On the other hand, neither can it be concluded that no risk is present. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Drinking water may contain other neurotoxicants, such as arsenic, but exclusion of studies including arsenic and iodine as co-exposures in a sensitivity analysis resulted in a lower estimate, although the difference was not significant.

Characteristics of the 27 studies included are shown in Table 1 An et al.

Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: Thus, children in high-fluoride areas had significantly lower IQ scores than those who lived in developmentl areas. Received Dec 30; Accepted Jul These results do not allow us to make any judgment regarding possible levels of risk at levels of exposure typical for water fluoridation in the U.

Because of heterogeneity excess variability between study results, we used neurotoxiccity the random-effects model for subsequent sensitivity analyses, which is generally considered to be the more conservative method Egger et al.

Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

We performed the Cochran test for heterogeneity between studies, Begg’s funnel plot, and Egger test to assess publication bias, and conducted meta-regressions to explore sources of variation in mean differences among the studies.

Policy and Institutional Considerations. Research on the intellectual development of children in high fluoride areas.

So when this paper is quoted, let the authors of said paper have the last word — it is not relevant to the U. Children in the high-fluoride area scored significantly lower IQ scores than those in the reference area. In other words, and yet again, this paper documents the risks of chronic fluoride toxicity, not water fluoridation. This article describes a complex analysis of heterogeneous studies published over 22 years in several different countries, the result of which is a cautious association between meta-abalysis levels of fluoride exposure and possible reductions in IQ test scores.

Articles from EHP, especially the News section, may contain photographs or illustrations copyrighted by other commercial organizations or individuals that may not be used without obtaining prior approval from the holder of the copyright. The study found a very small difference in IQ test scores between children in the high-fluoride and low-fluoride areas.


Our study summarized the findings of 27 studies on intelligence tests in fluoride-exposed children; 25 of the studies were carried out in China. We searched records abd — Developmental neurotoxicity of dsvelopmental chemicals. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of 27 previously published studies. Children who lived in areas with high fluoride exposure had lower IQ scores than those who lived in low-exposure or control areas.

Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

There was no evidence of publication bias. Views Read Edit Fossil record. Children Intelligence Scale Handbook. Because each of the intelligence tests used is designed to measure general intelligence, we used data from all eligible studies to estimate the possible effects of fluoride exposure on general intelligence. Although microbiologically safe, water supplies from small springs or mountain sources created pockets of increased exposures near or within areas of low exposures, thus representing exposure settings close to the ideal, because only the fluoride exposure would differ between nearby neighborhoods.

Developmental Neurotoxicity of Fluoride: In total, we identified 27 eligible epidemiological studies with high and reference exposures, end points of IQ scores, or related cognitive function measures with means and variances for the two exposure groups.

It was unclear whether action was taken to avoid reviewer error or bias. The highest levels observed in any of the studies — up to Although the studies were generally of insufficient quality, the consistency of their findings adds support to existing evidence of fluoride-associated cognitive deficits, and suggests that potential developmental neurotoxicity of fluoride should be a high research priority.

Relative risks that compared low or marginal intelligence versus normal intelligence based on CRT-RC were also extracted where reported.