Ledinegg Instability. Figure 1: Sketch illustrating the Ledinegg instability. Two- phase flows can exhibit a range of instabilities. Usually, however, the instability is . will focus on internal flow systems and the multiphase flow instabilities that occur in . Ledinegg instability (Ledinegg ) which is depicted in figure This. Ledinegg instability In fluid dynamics, the Ledinegg instability occurs in two- phase flow, especially in a boiler tube, when the boiling boundary is within the tube.

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A parametric instability study was systematically conducted with varying system pressure, heat flux, inlet subcooling, and channel size with and without inlet restrictor.

At high flow rate, the frictional and local pressure drop in the two-phase region become greater, which has a destabilizing effect. Coal and gas-fired power pedinegg used very large boilers to intsability steam for use in turbines. Ledinegg instability in microchannels. Besides, it considers equilibrium phasic temperature as in case of homogeneous model.

Rizwan-Uddin and Dorning [ 35 ] found that the threshold power for stability in boiling channel is sensitive to the void distribution parameter considered in the analysis.

The liquid then returns, the subcooled nonboiling condition is restored, and the cycle starts once again. Series of experiments carried out by van Bragt et al. The characteristics of different instabilities as well as the effects of different operating lediengg geometric parameters on them have been reviewed.

Saha and Zuber [ 33 ] considered subcooled boiling in the drift flux model and applied the model to the stability of ledinfgg natural circulation system.

The mechanism as proposed by Aritomi et al. Under these conditions, any small instabikity in isntability can cause a larger fluctuation of the two-phase frictional pressure loss due to fluctuation of density and flow, which propagates slowly in the two-phase region.

However, there are many situations with multiple steady-state solutions where the threshold of instability cannot be predicted from the steady-state laws alone or the predicted threshold is modified by other effects. The reduced driving force reduces the flow rate.

Instability is ledingg as sustained flow oscillations may cause forced mechanical vibration of components. They found that consideration of thermal nonequilibrium condition results in a more stable system at low subcooling and a more unstable system at high subcooling as insstability to the thermal equilibrium model. The effect of riser area on flow instability has been discussed in great detail in a companion paper by the authors and hence will not be repeated here.


These models are based on kinematic formulation which considers the problem of mechanical nonequilibrium between the phases by having a relationship between the quality ledknegg void fraction ledineyg superficial velocities of liquid and vapor phases, vapor drift velocity, and void distribution parameter.

Interaction of parallel channels with DWO can give rise to interesting stability behaviors as in single-phase NC. Keywords Boiling Flow instability Microchannel Two-phase flow. The different flow patterns lednegg the vertical and horizontal portions of the riser pipes are shown in the two-phase region at the operating conditions.

Such behavior was also observed in parallel heated channels of a two-phase natural circulation loop by Ledinegg [ 28 ]. An increase in drift velocity is also found to reduce the unstable region in the type II instability observed in Figures 14 to Ledinegg instability topic In fluid dynamics, the Ledinegg instability occurs in two-phase flow, especially in a boiler tube, instabbility the boiling boundary is within the tube.

So a reduction or an increase in riser height on type II instability of natural circulation system is competitive [ 2 ]. Several regimes of unstable flow with subcooled boiling can be observed depending on the test section power such as a instability with sporadic boiling boiling does not occur in every cycle ; b instability with subcooled boiling once in every cycle; c instability with subcooled boiling twice in every cycle; and d instability with fully developed boiling.

When the power is in between the above specified range, the internal pressure loss curve intersects the driving buoyancy curve at three points i. However, in certain cases depending on the geometry and operating conditions, islands of instability have been observed to occur [ 8 — 10 ]. Also low water level in downcomer and low system instabulity increases the density-wave instability in NCs.

Hence, the two-phase frictional pressure loss may be high owing to the smaller two-phase mixture density. In general, instabilities can be classified according to various bases as follows:.


Their main observations were that the oscillation period in flashing instability correlates well with the passing time of single-phase liquid in the chimney section regardless of the system pressure, the heat flux, the inlet subcooling, and the waveform. All instabilities eventually lead to some kind of oscillations. A stable single-phase NCS can become unstable with the inception of boiling.


In this mode, mean circulation rate was found to decrease with increase in heat flux, although the mean void fraction kept on increasing. Acoustic instability is considered to be caused by the resonance of pressure waves.

The larger the void fraction in the system, the greater the buoyancy force, and consequently a higher flow rate will be encountered. Fluid dynamics Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Physics spartacus The existence of multiple flow rates as a particular operating power and subcooling makes the system unstable.

Very long test sections may have sufficient internal compressibility to initiate pressure drop oscillations.

Thermal oscillations are considered as a regular feature of dryout of steam-water mixtures at high pressure [ 4 ]. The driving head is basically the gravitational head available from the steam drum to the bottom of the heated section.

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Lee and Ishii [ 25 ] found that ledindgg nonequilibrium between the phases created flow instability in the loop. For example, [ 13 ] observed seven different types of flow modes in a boiling two-phase natural circulation loop with increase in heater power such as i surface evaporation; ii a static instability characterized by periodic exit large bubble formation; iii a steady flow with continuous exit of small bubbles; iv a static instability leidnegg by periodic exit of small bubbles; v another static instability characterized by periodic extensive small bubble formation; vi a steady natural circulation; and vii the density-wave oscillation dynamic instability.

The next flow excursion occurs due to rise in pressure drop when the flow pattern changes from annular to slug flow in the vertical portion of the riser pipes. Member feedback about Ledinegg instability: The occurrence of the instability depends on the perturbed pressure drop in the two-phase and single-phase regions of the system and the propagation time delay of the void fraction or density in the system.